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NEP 2020 - A School Teacher’s View

After a gap of thirty-four years, the Union Cabinet recently approved a draft New Education Policy, which has proposed far-reaching changes to transform the educational system of India by 2040. Whilst this document is yet to be presented to the Parliament and one can’t be sure what shape it will finally take, since Education is a Concurrent subject, shared by both the Centre and State, and the implementation of this policy will depend on regulations made by them, it is likely that most of these proposals will be soon be the norm....

So what does the NEP 2020 mean for us teachers, professionally? To find the answer to this, we need to look at the key proposals of the NEP.

The NEP has proposed a 5+3+3+4 structure, which will bring children from the age of three years into the formal education system. The first five years of schooling called the Foundational Stage will be play/activity based for children from the ages of 3 to 8, i.e. up to Class 2. The next three years, called the Preparatory Stage, for children between 8 to 11years, i.e. Classes 3 to 5, will involve play, discovery, activities and interactive classroom learning. The Middle Stage, 11 to 14 years, i.e. classes 6 to 8, will be based on experiential learning in the Sciences, Arts, Math, Humanities. The Secondary Stage, which is the last four years of school education, envisages a multidisciplinary study, greater critical thinking, flexibility in student choice of subjects and more.

It is quite apparent that at each stage, our dependence on textbooks will be drastically reduced. The pedagogy will involve play, discovery, interactive classrooms, experiential learning, critical thinking and so on, in accordance with the age of the child.

Are we teachers ready to break free from ‘chalk and talk’ and use different pedagogies to allow actual, engaged learning through an interactive classroom? In the higher classes can we take on a ‘multidisciplinary approach’, as suggested by the NEP?

Undoubtedly, it will be a challenge for us, but nevertheless, one that will ensure actual, ‘deep learning’ for students.

The NEP proposes to make examinations ‘easier’ by reducing the curriculum to core essentials and focusing on ‘critical thinking’. The emphasis will shift from ‘content’ to ‘concept’. Once again, this will mean that our classes will have to be interactive, creative, collaborative, with experiential learning and thus, a great deal of fun for the pupils! And recent research in Education has shown that children learn faster when their class is fun! Are we teachers then ready to allow our students to engage with, and enjoy the learning process in our classroom?

The changes in the examination system, which will be conducted by a National Assessment Centre named PARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic development), and the establishment of the National Testing Agency to conduct high quality, common aptitude tests for the professional courses, will reduce, and hopefully eliminate the dependence of students on ‘coaching centers’. Senior school teachers who have to deal with uninterested, ‘tuition-fed’ students in their classes, will certainly welcome this move. Also, all teachers will have to stop ‘teaching to the test’!

As for Teacher Education, the Committee proposes to transform it, by shutting down sub-standard teacher education institutions and absorbing the course in multidisciplinary universities and colleges. Entry to B.Ed courses will be on the basis of an entrance exam conducted by the National Testing Agency. Perhaps that is just as well, as we have far too many teachers who have drifted in to the profession for the wrong reasons. Eventually, a 4-year integrated stage-specific B.Ed programme will be the minimum requirement for teachers. For those already in service, the document envisages Teacher Eligibility Tests (TETS) at all stages to be strengthened.

The NEP aims to bring the Indian education system in tune with the demands of the 21st century. There is a move away from ‘rote learning’ and ‘content’. It is no longer important to recite information verbatim. ‘Google’ can do that for us! It is more important for us to know what to do with the information!

Also, the skills required for all round success in this century include critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, leadership, to just point out a few…but our present curriculum and pedagogy do not address these demands. That is what the NEP is trying to rectify. After all, education must serve the needs of society.

The NEP has very high expectations of school teachers, right from the ‘Aanganvadi stage’ to the ‘Secondary stage’. The onus of preparing our children for the 21st century is on us. We teachers shape the future of the nation and we must accept and face the challenges posed by the NEP. It is the way forward!

To Train or Not to Train

As a Teacher Trainer, I have often faced opposition from teachers who have been in the profession for some years, and who feel that training is only for novice teachers, and not for veterans such as them. This may be true up to a point, but just like the armed forces or corporate houses, teachers also require periodic, refresher training courses. There are several reasons for this. ...

To start with, let us ask a fundamental question: Why do we teach? Do we teach only to impart content-based knowledge, to our pupils? Or do we teach in order to equip our children with the knowledge and skills they will require in the future?

Our children, as Khalil Gibran, the poet, very aptly said, belong to the ‘house of tomorrow, which you cannot visit, not even in your dreams’. Is the content-based knowledge, acquired in the past, enough for our pupils, who will enter the ‘world of tomorrow’? Is there not a requirement for a teacher to update herself or himself in today’s world?

Then again, what is it that our children need in their future? Just content-based knowledge, or also relevant skills?

The skills that our students will require in their workplace tomorrow are very different from those required even a few years ago. Earlier, it was all about being a ‘leader’ or being ‘first’! That is no longer true. One will have to be a leader as well as a team player in the workplace of the future. Even in schools, ‘ranks’ have been replaced by ‘grades’. Are we teachers equipped to impart the skills of being a leader or a team player, to our students? Have we adapted the pedagogy, we use, to develop such skills?

Similarly, empathy for other peoples was not a major part of learning earlier. Tomorrow, even in the post-Covid world, you could be sitting at home in Kanpur and working with a team of people from Singapore, Addis Ababa, Tokyo and Dresden. And in order to work with others, one needs to empathize with and understand diverse cultures and values. Are we teachers imparting these skills in the classroom?

‘Critical Thinking’ is a vital skill for us today, as the NEP (draft) 2020 has pointed out. But Critical Thinking skills do not come out of rote learning and regurgitated knowledge. It presupposes the ability to ‘question’ and that is something most of us do not encourage in our classrooms! As a result we create generation after generation of citizenry who unthinkingly accept whatever the powers-that-be, lay down. Unfortunately, most of us teachers are unaware of the ‘science and art of questioning’. How, then, shall we impart these skills to our students?

In the workplace of tomorrow, our students will need to be excellent communicators and very adept with technology. How many of us are teaching them these skills? Or are we just abdicating our responsibility and handing over this task to the Language and Computer Science teachers?

These are only some of the skills required in the workplace of tomorrow. Are we teachers equipped to prepare our children for the future. Should we not look at upgrading our own knowledge, skills and pedagogies?

Furthermore, let us look at the world our children live in. It is dominated by a very visual ‘social media’. Why then would a pupil be happy in your ‘chalk and talk’ classroom? Your students could probably find everything you teach, on Google. So, why would they not get bored and misbehave in your class? Should you not upgrade your pedagogical skills to engage children in diverse ways?

Interestingly, over the past few years, there has been vast research in education, not just by educationists, but also by psychologists and neuroscientists and the like, to find ways of enhancing pedagogy, so that actual, deep learning occurs in the classroom. Is there not a need for us teachers to learn about this?

Our profession is not static. It can never be static in our ever-changing world, because education serves the needs of society. For example, rote learning was relevant during the Industrial revolution, when the workplace required one to be a ‘cog-in-the-wheel’, to obey rules and not to ask questions! Today’s world and that of the future requires one to question, analyze, evaluate and create.

And so we teachers need to upgrade our knowledge skills and pedagogy periodically! Those of us who do, will flourish and those of us who don’t, will become extinct like the dinosaur.


Tips for Online Classes

Covid 19 has disrupted the educational system. In this period, those in the field of education are faced with the challenge of teaching without having direct contact with the students. Adaptation has been the hallmark of success, and survival of the humans. Technology has made it possible, unlike 20 years back, to have online classes. Though it has its deficiencies, it is the best, one can conceive of, in the present circumstances. Online classes have become a necessity in this period, and probably will continue to evolve as a method of teaching in the future. However, not all are conversant with the use of technology for effective teaching-learning process. Here are some points that I have for those involved in online teaching, particularly in the Indian context. ...

What is online teaching?

Teaching, using the internet, is online teaching. For this, obviously, the first requirement is a good internet connection between the students and teacher, and a software that connects them. The next requirement is a peripheral like a mobile phone or laptop/pc with camera at the teachers end, and a similar set up at the students’ end. The teacher looks at the camera in the mobile phone or laptop to teach, as if the students are looking at the teacher. The students can watch the live stream on the laptop or mobile.

So how do we have an effective online class?

Teaching in front of a camera is different from teaching students in a classroom, in many respects. The whole feel is different. Some may find it difficult to even express themselves in front on an inanimate object placed in front of them.

But first things first. We need to have a safe and reliable software to connect between the teacher and students. There are many software available - free and paid, which can be downloaded from the internet. We require one which is classified as a webinar app or a Learning Management System (LMS); preferable to have both. An LMS usually needs a laptop or a computer, although there are some which can be run on mobiles too.

What are the features of a webinar app?

It is possible to live stream a video using a webinar app. So you can create a virtual classroom. One can teach individuals, multiple groups at multiple locations using this app. It is possible to have structured lessons. It is also possible to have verbal discussions through online chat window and through an audio/video channel, although audio/video the interaction some times can be limited by the bandwidth.

One should take care to ensure that the software is safe. For instance in the initial days of use of one of the webinar software was misused by miscreants to post unacceptable materials. The popular webinar apps in India are Zoom, Google classroom, Google meet, Cisco Webex, Microsoft team. Recently, Jio Meet has joined the fray providing free and with unlimited number of participants in the meeting. The other good option is an open source app - Bigbluebutton. It is not only free, it is made for education. It has a simple interface and has the provision to share documents, live chat and lots of good, free, training resources. It can also be linked with LMS like Moodle. Also, if a school decides to go full scale, it can set up a server for the same.

What is a Learning Management System?

A Learning Management System (LMS) is a platform that helps teachers manage and organize educational materials online, conduct online courses, carry out assessments, give feedback to students, grade them, organise learning schedule, etc. Learning management systems help streamline the learning process by providing a central location for accessing material online and developing content. Let us say you are a Science teacher teaching grade 6, grade 7 and grade 8; you could create separate classes and create content for these classes and organise it using the software for use of your students, create assessments, analyse the performance, track an individual student, and so on. You could post the syllabus for a class, calendar, teaching and assessment schedule, etc.

Normally, LMS is not used for live streaming classes, but can also be used to do that.

Now let us look at some of the other issues related to online teaching.

Online Teaching - Feedback

One of the main drawback of the online teaching is that you do not get a direct feedback from the students. In a regular classroom, a teacher is able to understand the effectiveness of the lesson, not just by way of the responses to questions asked by the students, but also the attention, body language and facial expressions. A teacher can sense the level of interest and understanding in a contact classroom. The response to questions, provide an immediate feedback for corrective action.

In an online class, a good degree of feedback can be obtained if the software you use has the provision for students to interact with the teacher. It is even possible to see the the student live. So one can pose questions, put out a short quiz or have a poll for feedback on learning. Polling is especially useful as it helps to find out if the students are paying attention. If someone doesn’t respond, one can find out the reason. If the responses are not as per the expectation, one can take corrective action. Gradually both the students and teachers become comfortable with the method of feedback over a period of time.

Online Teaching - Basic Technicals

Let us see how the online teaching can be made effective. Just as in a contact class, the effectiveness of a class depends a lot on preparation. The preparation has to be even more for an online class.

Most teachers follow the direct instruction method for teaching. Even that will not be effective in an online class, if some basic rules are not followed. Let us look at some technical aspects, that one should take care off, while taking an online class.

Feeling - Look into the camera as if the students are there. If you don’t feel that way the chances are that your class will not be effective. This needs practice. Record a few times to check whether it has nearly the same feel as a contact class. It should seem to the students that you are there in front of them.

Framing - Look at the angle of the camera and the field of coverage. If you are using a mobile, check the position of the camera - one tends to look at the centre of the mobile whereas the camera may be in one corner. Use a plain background without anything that could cause distractions. If you are using a board/paper and writing something on it, make sure that the view of the board is clear. Check your practice videos.

Lighting - Ensure balanced uniform lighting and avoid reflective surfaces in the field of view. Check your practice videos.

Sound - Check the sound reproduction. Use a collar mic, preferably with bluetooth, if your speech is not picked up well by the mobile or pc. Adjust the volume control to have clear, moderately loud sound output. Check your practice videos.

Online Teaching - Direct Instruction

The strategies to be adopted for direct instruction is virtually the same as with a contact class. anticipatory set, concept development, guided practice, closure, independent practice, evaluation.

The strategies to be adopted for direct instruction is virtually the same as with a contact class. anticipatory set, concept development, guided practice, closure, independent practice, evaluation.

Beginning - Like in a normal classroom have a good impactful beginning - a story, something surprising, something intriguing, any thing that draws students’ attention, like in a normal classroom. Unlike in a classroom, sometimes online teaching is more effective, as the teacher can appear closer if video is taken that way. Mind you, in a regular classroom the students at the back are not able to see that well and hear as well as those sitting in front.

If children are to see what you write, then position the camera in such as way, as to prevent obstruction of the field of view by your body and hand. In such cases it is better to use either a white board or pre-written material. Use of powerpoint, word or pdf files is a good alternative. The choice depends, also, on what is being taught. Here are some suggestions:

Use external resources - There are plenty of resources available on the net which are free to use. So, you need not take the trouble of making them, but you will have to invest some time on identifying them and pasting the URL links for these resources in your notes so that you can click on it and open when required.

Create own resources - As I said, more often than not, you may not have to create resources yourself, but sometimes you would have to. So it is important to learn to use some of the tools such as powerpoint, word, excel, pdf, videos, etc. You should be in a position to create content using these for presentation to the children. Once you have them ready, open them and keep them ready so that you can switch between your camera, and the files you want the children to see. Keep the files open or keep them on your desktop so that you can display it just by clicking it.

Information - Information can be easily presented on powerpoint. One can also use word or pdf. While presenting using word or pdf, the size of the fonts should be large for children to see clearly. The presentation combined with oral explanation would be quite effective in the direct teaching approach. While making any presentation it is good to use appropriate colours and pictures to highlight the points and to be illustrative.

Procedural knowledge - Developing procedural knowledge, involving systematic steps such as solving a mathematical problem, can be illustrated using an online white board, such as the one you have in bigbluebutton, or a powerpoint presentation, word document or pdf file, combined with oral explanation using markers, for drawing attention to the points you are making. Open them and keep it ready, so that you can switch between your camera and the files you want the children to see.

Concept - This is the most important part, and sometimes difficult, when it comes to science and other subjects which require diagrams, explanation and some times even animation. Fortunately there is plenty of resources available for this on the net. I would advice you to use them. In the absence of online resources I would suggest that you prepare the resources required for teaching and use whiteboard, powerpoint presentation, illustrations, scanned images, etc to explain the concept. If the school has subscribed to content videos from any company that could be used effectively. It is important to pause in between, to explain or clarify doubts of the students.

Guided Practice - This is undoubtedly the most difficult part as this is a supervised activity. This will be time consuming, when done online, but it needs to be done. This is where you need to have a good internet and video sharing facility. You may give the children some task for guided practice, and ask the children to complete it; and then ask them to show it to you live, using their camera. The hands up can be used to draw attention of the teacher by the students for the purpose. You can check whether it is OK and give guidance and feedback if necessary. If it is a numerical problem, you may give them the answer after you have given them sufficient time, and ask who all got it correct. Ask the children who got it wrong to show their work to you online, and guide them to correct their mistakes. The process may be repeated as needed. In other cases, you may ask children selectively to read out their answers, for everyone online, to hear. Guide, if modifications are required and re-teach if necessary. If there is a working or a note that you would like the whole class to see, then you could share your screen to explain.

Activity - experiment / other activities - If these are being performed by you, managing the camera can be a challenge. You will have to keep checking whether the camera is capturing what you would like the children to see. To do this live, is quite difficult. It would be better to pre-record this, taking your time to do it, and playing it for the students when required. Else, you will require someone else to do videography, as you explain or vice versa.

The other alternative is to get the links for such activities from the net. In fact, it may be better to take this route.

Home Assignment - It is important for children to do independent practice at home. If the text book exercises are being done by the children, they could write on a paper or notebook, scan it and send it to the teacher for correction. This may be done over whatsapp or telegram.

Assessment - Assessment may be done in different ways depending on what you would like to assess and the features available. If the school has an LMS, testing can be done fairly easily using the software, with a little guidance and training. In the absence of an LMS, teachers can prepare the assessment questions in word or pdf and post it to the children on whatsapp, telegram or email. The children should be told beforehand when the question paper would be available, and when they would have to scan and send the answer sheet back. Obviously, it is not as good as the online testing using LMS..

Feedback to students - It is extremely important to give feedback to children to not only make them feel that you are there and observing and looking at every work that the children do, but also to make then realise the areas where they need to improve and how it can be done. Apart from the feedback on academic work, it is good to interact with the students to make them feel that you care for them. This goes a long way in establishing the emotional connect which is very important from a child’s perspective.

Bringing about Discipline in Schools

Discipline is one of the most important aspects of child development, not just for the purpose of having a smooth functioning of school, but also for the general performance of a child in every field of activity. It is said that “Excellence is a Journey; Discipline is the Vehicle”. Emanuel James Rohn (professionally known as Jim Rohn), an American entrepreneur, author and motivational speaker said, “Discipline is the bridge between goals and accomplishment”....

What is Discipline, and why is it necessary?

At a lower level, discipline is considered as just obeying orders or following instructions, at a higher level it is self-discipline. It is the ability to have a control over ourselves - our thought and consequently our actions. It is the ability to yield not to temptations and do what is right. It is about deferring gratification for the sake of better rewards later. It is about regulating our behaviour for a greater good. However, making a child do something (may be good) under duress, will not be productive.

“The only discipline that lasts is self-discipline” - Bum Philips

“Discipline imposed from the outside eventually defeats when it is not matched by desire from within.” - Dawson Earle Trotman

“With self-discipline almost anything is possible.” - Theodore Roosevelt


Developing Self-discipline in a child requires sustained effort on the part of the teachers, parents and self. Teachers are generally concerned about discipline in the school, mainly to ensure that educational goals and activities are not derailed due to disciplinary issues. A teacher is under tremendous pressure to a carry out a variety of functions, the prime being to satisfactorily complete the academic work. Though it seems simple to do that, only a school with high discipline levels and with teachers who understand the basics of creating a well-ordered classroom will be able to achieve the goals.


There are different models of discipline developed over the years by educational psychologists. Some of the useful ones are discussed below in brief.

1. The Neo-Skinnerian Model: Behaviour is conditioned by its consequences. Behaviour is strengthened if followed immediately by reinforcement. Reinforcers include verbal approval, smiles, "thumbs up," high grades, free reading time, goodies, prizes and awards. Behaviour is weakened if it is not reinforced. Behaviour is also weakened if it is followed by punishment. In the beginning stages of learning, reinforcement provided every time the behaviour occurs produces the best results.

2. The Ginott Model: The teacher's self-discipline can help in modelling the behaviour you want in students. Use sane messages when correcting misbehaviour. Don't attack the student's character (personal traits). Labelling disables. Use communication that is congruent with student's own feelings about the situation and themselves. Teachers should express their feelings--anger--but in sane ways. "What you are doing makes me very angry. I need you to ...." Praise the act, not the student. Help pupils develop their self-esteem and to trust their own experience.

3. The Glasser Model: Good Behaviour Comes from Good Choices. Help pupils learn to make good choices, since good choices produce good behaviour. Do not accept excuses for bad behaviour. Ask, "What choices did you have? Why did you make that choice? Did you like the result? What have you learned?"

4. The Dreikurs Model: Misbehaviour is directed at mistaken goals: attention-getting, power-seeking, revenge, and displaying inadequacy. It calls for self-discipline. The teacher's role is helping pupils to impose limits on themselves. Teachers can model democratic behaviour by providing guidance and leadership and involving pupils in setting rules and consequences. All students want to belong. Their behaviour is directed to belonging. Misbehaviour is the result of their mistaken belief that it will gain them peer recognition. (It is usually a mistake to assume that misbehaviour is an attack directed at the teacher.) The trick is to identify the goal and act in ways that do not reinforce mistaken goals. Support the idea that negative consequences follow inappropriate behaviour by your actions.

5. The Canter Model: Taking Charge. The assertive teacher is more effective than the non-assertive or the hostile teacher. The assertive teacher is able to maintain a positive, caring, and productive climate in the classroom. Teachers should insist on responsible behaviour. When teachers fail, it is typically due to poor class control. Firm control maintained humanely is liberating. Assertive discipline consists of: Stating and teaching expectations early, persistence in stating expectations and wishes, use of a clear, calm, firm voice and eye contact, use of non-verbal gestures that support the verbal statements and influencing student behaviour without threats or shouting rather than escalating into an argument. Example: Non-assertive: "Please try to stop fighting." Hostile: "You are acting like disgusting savages again!" Assertive: "We do not fight. Sit down until you cool off." [and then we will discuss the consequence (if appropriate).]

6. The Fred Jones Model: Body Language, Incentive Systems, and Providing Efficient Help. Effective body language [limit setting acts] causes students to stop misbehaviour without being costly in teacher time: eye contact, facial expression [calm, no nonsense look], posture [first step in "moving in"], signals and gestures, and physical proximity. Effective non-verbal acts typically stop misbehaviour and avoid verbal confrontation. [An appropriate gesture, e.g., pointing at the rule on the board, (or briefly calling the miscreant by name) may stop the disturbing behaviour, with little more than a pause in instruction, while failing to act "until I have time to deal with him" may allow the situation to deteriorate until significant time and emotional expenditure will be required.] Incentive systems motivate students to start doing the right thing, maintain on-task behaviour, and behave properly.

An incentive something the teacher can provide that students like so much that in order to get it they will work throughout the period/week/month. Incentives such as stars, being dismissed first, having work displayed, grades, etc. motivate only the achievers. Preferred Activity Time can provide incentives for the entire class. [Incentive systems are designed to build student cooperation so efficiently that almost any student will do as requested with a minimum of teacher effort.]

Positive instructional support. Students are motivated to complete work when teachers are able to move quickly from pupil to pupil [praise, prompt, and leave] and provide help efficiently [Visual Instruction Plans].

Back-up Systems. A series of responses the teacher can call upon after the above fails. If some students continue to misbehave after being presented with appropriate instruction, well-planned and delivered, with immediate response to off-task behaviour with limit setting acts, an incentive system, and positive instructional support, then what to do? It is important that the teacher plan...and be prepared to increasingly severe order - a sequence of consequences administered within the classroom and a back-up system outside the classroom. The implementation of the plan sequentially to the point at which students are back on task insures minimum loss of instructional time. The knowledge of what to do next...if what you are doing doesn't work...instils confidence that you can gain control without getting upset.

Setting the stage. There a number of things that the teacher should do to manage a classroom effectively. These include:

a. Set up the room to facilitate learning and movement.

b. Talk to parents to gain their support at the start of the semester.

c. Be aware of the nature of classroom disruptions so that responses are appropriate.

d. General rules tell what behaviour the teacher expects.

Rules for rules: Must be simple and clear. There should be very few rules and they should be posted. Don't make a rule unless it will be enforced every time it is broken.

e. Operational rules describe the nuts and bolts and must be specified to provide for smooth operations [however are typically not parts of the "discipline plan" general rules].

f. What materials to use, e.g., paper size, pencil or pen? What must be done to complete an assignment, when due, etc. [Performance expectations.] When to sharpen pencils, get a drink, or go to the bathroom? When it is appropriate to move about the classroom? When and to whom it is appropriate to talk? How to get help? How and when to clean up? How the class is dismissed?

g. Why do you need rules? Pupils want to know what they can do/get away with. If you don't make the rules clear, they will test the limits until your limits are reached. This is normal, human behaviour.

h. Rules need to be taught as carefully as any other lesson.

i. Rules need to be re-taught at the beginning of an activity, after a vacation, when there is confusion.

j. Rules need to be enforced consistently, calmly and promptly. The drill sergeant approach is unnecessary and works at cross-purposes if your goal is to help pupils develop self-control.


There are basically four different approaches to teacher/parental discipline:

i. Permissive [low structure] Permissive teachers offer a great deal of autonomy for their children and are warm, loving and nurturing. However, their permissiveness also leads to reinforcing bad behaviour. It is a more student-centred approach. They let children decide on what to learn and how to learn. They are more democratic in their approach. One of the main benefits is that children feel some ownership and are more focussed, responsible and motivated. They are generally, the most popular teachers in the school.

ii. Authoritarian [high structure, low justification] Authoritarian teachers exert their will over their children and exert control through power and coercion. Their attitude is “I said so..” or “It is my way or the highway.” They tend to be inconsistent, unfair, and neutral about feelings and emotions of children. Children show respect and follow rules out of fear. Their decisions are based on external and absolute standards and do not take into consideration the cause or justification of the behaviour. They are cold and not involved in children’s lives.

iii. Authoritative [high structure, high justification]. Authoritative teachers are strict, consistent, and loving. Authoritative teachers are issue-oriented and pragmatic, rather than motivated by an external, absolute standard. They lay out fair and limited rules and expectations taking the children into confidence. They tend to adjust their expectations to the needs of the child. They listen to children's arguments, although they may not change their minds. They persuade and explain, as well as punish. Most importantly, they try to balance the responsibility of the child to conform to the needs and demands of others with the rights of the child to be respected and have their own needs met. Authoritative teachers are strict, fair, consistent and warm towards the children and get respected as a result. Authoritative approach makes use of teacher conversation to make children to develop right attitudes and values.

Adolescents are most likely to follow their consciences rather than to give in to peer pressure if they grew up in an "authoritative" home/school where rules are firm but clearly explained and opposed to "authoritarian"...where rules are laid down without explanation...or "permissive"...where children are able to do as they wish. This note is not from Fred Jones although it is consistent with him. Unfortunately, I am unable to retrieve the citation and apologize to the author.]

iv. Neglectful [No structure] The neglectful teachers take a view that it is not their business to enforce discipline. They take the hands-off approach and don’t get involved in their children’s lives. They are not concerned with the children’s feelings or thoughts and believe in completing the task assigned to them. They let the children do what they want and face the natural consequences.

In Brief:

Students like classrooms to be well-managed. Disruptions that interfere with work time, upset the teacher, and cause privileges to be withdrawn, tend to be unpopular.

A well-administered discipline plan with incentives saves time so that the content of the course can be studied more effectively. The teacher that is "too busy" to teach rules and enforce them promptly, will be, forever, out of time.